The Hymn of the Pearl

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The Hymn of the Pearl – The Acts
of Thomas

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Archive Notes

Imbedded within the Acts of Thomas we
find a beautiful and complete statement of a classic Gnostic myth
describing the exile and redemption of the soul.  The text is
known both as the “Hymn of the Pearl” and occasionally as “Hymn of the
Robe of Glory”. What astounds most is that such a clear rendition of
the Gnostic mythos survived within a text which residing for centuries on the shelves of orthodox archives.  

The following beautifully rendered translation is by G.R.S. Mead (from  The Hymn of the Robe of Glory

this excellent book is available in the library, just
click the link).  Mead’s brief introduction to the text is also
included below.

A second translation of the text by William
Wright  (Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, London,
1871, pp. 238-245) is provided here for reference and
comparision. Wright’s translation is in our opinion a much less
satisfactory treatment of the text.

The
library offers a lecture from the archive of The Gnostic Society giving
a detailed examination and exegesis of this very important scripture: The Hymn
of the Pearl: A Classic Gnostic Myth from the Acts of Thomas

(MP3 format, 75 minutes lecture).  

Introduction by G .R. S. Mead

(This introduction is from:  The Hymn of the Robe of Glory by G .R. S. Mead)

The original title of this
beautiful Gnostic Poem has been lost, and it is now generally referred
to as The Hymn of the Soul. Preuschen, however,
calls it The Song of Deliverance (Das
Lied von der Erlösung
); while in my Fragments (1900)
I ventured to name it The Hymn of the Robe of Glory. I
here, also, prefer to retain this title, as it seems the more
appropriate.

The original text of the Poem is
in Old Syriac, in lines of twelve syllables with a cæsura,
and so in couplets, for the most part of six
syllables. A text of a Greek version has recently been discovered by Bonnet at Rome (C.
Vallicellanus B. 35) and published in his text of The Acts of
Thomas
(1903). It is partly literal, partly paraphrastic,
with occasional doublets and omissions of whole lines. In addition
there is a summary in Greek by a certain Nicetas, Archibishop of
Thessalonica, who flourished prior to the XIth century (the date of the
MS. in which his abridgment is found), but who is otherwise unknown.
This seems to be based on another Greek version.

The copy of the original Syriac
text is found in a single MS. only (Brit. Mus. Add. 14645), which
contains a collection of Lives of Saints, and bears the precise date
936 A.D. Our Poem is found in
the text of the Syriac translation from the Greek of The Acts
of Judas Thomas the Apostle;
it has, however, evidently
nothing to do with the original Greek text of these Acts, and its style
and contents are quite foreign to the rest of the matter. It is
manifestly an independent document incorporated by the Syrian redactor, who introduces
it in the usual naïve fashion of such compilations.

Judas Thomas on his travels in
India is cast into prison. There he offers up a prayer. On its
conclusion we read: 

“And when he had prayed and
sat down, Judas began to chant this hymn: The Hymn of  Judas Thomas the
Apostle in the Country of the Indians.”

After the Poem comes the
subscription:

“The Hymn of Judas Thomas the
Apostle, which he spake in prison, is ended.”

This literary phenomenon is
precisely similar to that presented by The Hymn of Jesus (Vol.
V.), to the introduction of which the reader is referred for a brief
consideration of the nature of the Gnostic Acts.

Our Hymn is indubitably Gnostic;
but of what school or tradition? Learned opinion is preponderatingly in
favour of attributing it to the Syrian Gnostic Bardaisan (Bardaiṣān, also Latinized as Bardesanes, 154-222 A.D.), or, less precisely, to some
Bardesanist poet. (For Bardesanes, see F. pp.
392-414).

This is borne out by the text of
the Poem itself, in which the mention of the Parthians (38a)
as the ruling race is decidedly in favour of its having been written
prior to the overthrow of the Parthian dynasty in 224 A.D.

There are also other indications
pointing to Bardaisan as the poet; not only are some of the leading doctrines peculiarly
those of this distinguished teacher, as has been pointed out by Bevan
and Preuschen, but also, as I have ventured to suggest, there is a
certain personal note in the Poem.

Bardais~n’s
parents were rich and noble; and their young son not only received the
best education in manners and learning procurable, but he was brought
up at the court of Edessa with the crown prince, who afterwards
succeeded to the throne as one of the Abgars. Not only so, but Bardaisan subsequently converted his friend and patron
to Gnostic Christianity, and induced him to make it the state-religion;
so that our Gnostic must have the credit indirectly of establishing the
first Christian State.

The description of the
trade-route from Parthia to Egypt and of the adventures of the hero in
Egypt, moreover, has led me to ask whether a real piece of personal
biography may not have been woven into the Poem. May there not be in it
a lost page from the occult life of Bardaisan himself?

Filled with longing to penetrate
the mysteries of the Gnosis, he joins a caravan to Egypt, and arrives
at Alexandria. There he meets with a fellow-countryman on the same
quest as himself, who gives him some useful hints about the many
corrupt and charlatanesque schools of pseudo-gnosis that thrived in
that centre of intellectual curiosity and religious enthusiasm. He,
however, in spite of these warnings, seems to have fallen into the
hands of the unscrupulous, and so, for a time, forgets his true
spiritual quest, in the by-ways, perchance, of lower psychism and
magic. Only after this bitter experience does he obtain the instruction
he longs for, by initiation into the spiritual Gnosis of the inner
circles of, it may have been, the Valentinian tradition.

Of course this speculation is
put forward with all hesitation; but it is neither impossible, nor
improbable.

In any case, it is the least
important element, and need not detain us except as being a possible
source of the local colouring matter. The Hymn itself is a truly poetic
inspiration, and deals with far higher mysteries and experiences. But
before we can venture to suggest an interpretation, the reader must be
made acquainted with the Poem itself in a version based on a minute
comparison of all the existing translations.

The Hymn 

(The Hymn of  Judas Thomas the
Apostle
in the Country of the Indians)

Translated by G.R.S. Mead

I.

When, a quite little child, I was dwelling

In the House of my Father’s Kingdom,

And in the wealth and the glories

Of my Up-bringers I was delighting,

From the East, our Home, my Parents

Forth-sent me with journey-provision.

Indeed from the wealth of our Treasure,

They bound up for me a load.

Large
was it, yet was it so light

That all alone I could bear it.

II.

Gold
from the Land of Beth-Ellaya,

Silver from Gazak the Great,

Chalcedonies
of India,

Iris-hued [Opals?] from Kãshan.

They
girt me with Adamant [also]

That hath power to cut even iron.

My
Glorious Robe they took off me

Which in their love they had wrought me,

And
my Purple Mantle [also]

Which was woven to match with my stature.

III.

And
with me They [then] made a compact;

In my heart wrote it, not to forget it:

“If thou goest down into Egypt,

And thence thou bring’st the one Pearl –

“[The
Pearl] that lies in the Sea,

Hard by the loud-breathing Serpent –

“[Then]
shalt Thou put on thy Robe

And thy Mantle that goeth upon it,

“And
with thy Brother, Our Second,

Shalt thou be Heir in our Kingdom.”

IV.

I
left the East and went down

With two Couriers [with me];

For
the way was hard and dangerous,

For I was young to tread it.

I
traversed the borders of Maish~ n,

The mart of the Eastern merchants,

And
I reached the Land of Babel,

And entered the walls of Sarbãg.

Down
further I went into Egypt;

And from me parted my escorts.

V.

Straightway
I went to the Serpent;

Near to his lodging I settled,

To
take away my Pearl

While he should sleep and should slumber.

Lone
was I there, yea, all lonely;

To my fellow-lodgers a stranger.

However
I saw there a noble,

From out of the Dawn-land my kinsman,

A
young man fair and well favoured,

Son of Grandees; he came and he joined me.

VI.

I
made him my chosen companion,

A comrade, for sharing my wares with.

He
warned me against the Egyptians,

’Gainst mixing with the unclean ones.

For
I had clothed me as they were,

That they might not guess I had come

From
afar to take off the Pearl,

And so rouse the Serpent against me.

VII.

But
from some occasion or other

They learned I was not of their country.

With
their wiles they made my acquaintance;

Yea, they gave me their victuals to eat.

I
forgot that I was a King’s son,

And became a slave to their king.

I
forgot all concerning the Pearl

For which my Parents had sent me;

And
from the weight of their victuals

I sank down into a deep sleep.

VIII.

All
this that now was befalling,

My Parents perceived and were anxious.

It
was then proclaimed in our Kingdom,

That all should speed to our Gate –

Kings
and Chieftains of Parthia,

And of the East all the Princes.

And
this is the counsel they came to:

I should not be left down in Egypt.

And
for me they wrote out a Letter;

And to it each Noble his Name set:

IX.

“From
Us – King of Kings, thy Father,

And thy Mother, Queen of the Dawn-land,

“And
from Our Second, thy Brother –

To thee, Son, down in Egypt, Our Greeting!

“Up
an arise from thy sleep,

Give ear to the words of Our Letter!

“Remember
that thou art a King’s son;

See whom thou hast served in thy slavedom.

Bethink
thyself of the Pearl

For which thou didst journey to Egypt.

X.

“Remember
thy Glorious Robe,

Thy Splendid Mantle remember,

“To
put on and wear as adornment,

When thy Name may be read in the Book of the Heroes,

“And
with Our Successor, thy Brother,

Thou mayest be Heir in Our Kingdom.”

My
Letter was [surely] a Letter

The King had sealed up with His Right Hand,

’Gainst
the Children of Babel, the wicked,

The tyrannical Daimons of Sarbãg.

XI.

It
flew in the form of the Eagle,

Of all the winged tribes the king-bird;

It
flew and alighted beside me,

And turned into speech altogether.

At
its voice and the sound of its winging,

I waked and arose from my deep sleep.

Unto
me I took it and kissed it;

I loosed its seal and I read it.

E’en
as it stood in my heart writ,

The words of my Letter were written.

XII.

I
remembered that I was a King’s son,

And my rank did long for its nature.

I
bethought me again of the Pearl,

For which I was sent down to Egypt.

And
I began [then] to charm him,

The terrible loud-breathing Serpent.

I
lulled him to sleep and to slumber,

Chanting o’er him the Name of my Father,

The
Name of our Second, [my Brother],

And [Name] of my Mother, the East-Queen.

XIII.

And
[thereon] I snatched up the Pearl,

And turned to the House of my Father.

Their
filthy and unclean garments

I stripped off and left in their country.

To
the way that I came I betook me,

To the Light of our Home, to the Dawn-land.

On
the road I found [there] before me,

My Letter that had aroused me –

As
with its voice it had roused me,

So now with its light it did lead me –

XIV.

On
fabric of silk, in letter of red [?],

With shining appearance before me [?],

Encouraging
me with its guidance,

With its love it was drawing me onward.

I
went forth; through Sarbãg I passed;

I left B~ bel-land on my left hand;

And
I reached unto Maishan the Great,

The meeting-place of the merchants,

That
lieth hard by the Sea-shore.

XV.

My
Glorious Robe that I’d stripped off,

And my Mantle with which it was covered,

Down
from the Heights of Hyrcania,

Thither my Parents did send me,

By
the hands of their Treasure-dispensers

Who trustworthy were with it trusted.

Without
my recalling its fashion, –

In the House of my Father my childhood had left it,–

At
once, as soon as I saw it,

The Glory looked like my own self.

XVI.

I
saw it in all of me,

And saw me all in [all of] it, –

That
we were twain in distinction,

And yet again one in one likeness.

I
saw, too, the Treasurers also,

Who unto me had down-brought it,

Were
twain [and yet] of one likeness;

For one Sign of the King was upon them –

Who
through them restored me the Glory,

The Pledge of my Kingship [?].

XVII.

The
Glorious Robe all-bespangled

With sparkling splendour of colours:

With
Gold and also with Beryls,

Chalcedonies, iris-hued [Opals?],

With
Sards of varying colours.

To match its grandeur [?], moreover, it had been completed:

With
adamantine jewels

All of its seams were off-fastened.

[Moreover]
the King of Kings’ Image

Was depicted entirely all o’er it;

And
as with Sapphires above

Was it wrought in a motley of colour.

XVIII.

I
saw that moreover all o’er it

The motions of Gnosis abounding;

I
saw it further was making

Ready as though for to speak.

I
heard the sound of its Music

Which it whispered as it descended [?]:

“Behold
him the active in deeds!

For whom I was reared with my Father;

“I
too have felt in myself

How that with his works waxed my stature.”

XIX.

And
[now] with its Kingly motions

Was it pouring itself out towards me,

And
made haste in the hands of its Givers,

That I might [take and] receive it.

And
me, too, my love urged forward

To run for to meet it, to take it.

And
I stretched myself forth to receive it;

With its beauty of colour I decked me,

And
my Mantle of sparkling colours

I wrapped entirely all o’er me.

XX.

I
clothed me therewith, and ascended

To the Gate of Greeting and Homage.

I
bowed my head and did homage

To the Glory of Him who had sent it,

Whose
commands I [now] had accomplished,

And who had, too, done what He’d promised.

[And
there] at the Gate of His House-sons

I mingled myself with His Princes;

For
He had received me with gladness,

And I was with Him in His Kingdom;

XXI.

To
whom the whole of His Servants

With sweet-sounding voices sing praises.

*
* * * *

He
had promised that with him to the Court

Of the King of Kings I should speed,

And
taking with me my Pearl

Should with him be seen by our King.

The Hymn of Judas Thomas the
Apostle,
which he spake in prison, is ended.

The following alternative translation  from the Syriac version of the text is by William Wright,
Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles (London,
1871), pp. 238-245. Illegible words are indicated by (…). The hymn
has been arranged in couplets, following A. E. J. Klijn, The
Acts of Thomas
(Leiden, 1962), pp. 120-125. Klijn uses
Wright’s translation except for a few variant readings.

The Hymn of Judas Thomas the
Apostle

Translated by William Wright

When I was a little child,

and dwelling in my kingdom,

in my father’s house, and was
content with the wealth and the

luxuries of my nourishers,

from the East, our home,

my parents equipped me (and) sent me forth;

and of the wealth of our
treasury

they took abundantly, (and) tied up for me a load

large and (yet) light, which I
myself could carry,

gold of Beth-Ellaya,

and silver of Gazak the great,

and rubies of India,

and agates from Beth-Kashan,

and they furnished me with the
adamant,

which can crush iron.

And they took off from me the
glittering robe,

which in their affection they made for me,

and the purple toga,

which was measured (and) woven to my stature.

And they made a compact with me,

and wrote it in my heart, that it might not be forgotten:

“If thou goest down into Egypt,

and bringest the one pearl,

which is in the midst of the sea

around the loud-breathing serpent,

thou shalt put on thy glittering
robe

and thy toga, with which (thou art) contented,

and with thy brother, who is
next to us in authority,

thou shalt be heir in our kingdom.”

I quitted the East (and) went
down,

there being two guardians,

for the way was dangerous and
difficult,

and I was very young to travel it.

I passed through the borders of
Maishan,

the meeting-place of the merchants of the East,

and I reached the land of Babel,

and I entered the walls of Sarbug.

I went down into Egypt,

and my companions parted from me.

I went straight to the serpent,

I dwelt in his abode,

(waiting) till he should lumber
and sleep,

and I could take my pearl from him.

And when I was single and alone

(and) became strange to my family,

one of my race, a free-born man,

and Oriental, I saw there,

a youth fair and loveable,

the son of oil-sellers;

and he came and attached himself
to me,

and I made him my intimate friend,

and associate with whom I shared
my merchandise.

I warned him against the Egyptians,

and against consorting with the
unclean;

And I dressed in their dress,

that they might not hold me in abhorrence,

because I was come from abroad
in order to take the pearl,

and arouse the serpent against me.

But in some way other or another

they found out that I was not their countryman,

and they dealt with me
treacherously,

and gave their food to eat.

I forget that I was a son of
kings,

and I served their king;

and I forgot the pearl,

for which my parents had sent me,

and because of the burden of
their oppressions

I lay in a deep sleep.

But all this things that befell
me

my parents perceived, and were grieved for me;

and proclamation was made in our
kingdom,

that every one should come to our gate [kingdom],

kings and princes of Parthia,

and all the nobles of the East.

And they wove a
plan on my behalf,

that I might not be left in Egypt;

and they wrote to me a letter,

and every noble signed his name to it:

“From thy father, the king of
kings,

and thy mother, the mistress of the East,

and from thy brother, our second
(in authority),

to thee our son, who art in Egypt, greeting!

Call to mind that thou art a son
of kings!

See the slavery,–whom thou servest!

Remember the pearl,

for which thou was sent to Egypt!

Think of thy robe,

and remember thy splendid toga,

which thou shalt wear and (with
which) thou shalt be adorned,

when thy name hath been read out in the list of the valiant,

and thy brother, our viceroy,

thou shalt be in our kingdom.”

My letter is a letter,

which the king sealed with his own right hand,

(to keep it) from the wicked
ones, the children of Babel,

and from the savage demons of Sarbug.

It flew in the likeness of an
eagle,

the king of all birds;

it flew and alight beside me,

and became all speech.

At its voice and the sound of
its rustling,

I started and arose from my sleep.

I took it up and kissed it,

and I began (and) read it;

and according to what was traced
on my heart

were the words of my letter.

I remembered that I was a son of
royal parents,

and my noble birth asserted itself.

I remembered the pearl,

for which I had been sent to Egypt,

and I began to charm him,

the terrible loud breathing serpent.

I hushed him asleep and lulled
him into slumber,

for my father’s name I named over him,

and the name of our second (in
power),

and the of my mother, the queen of the East.

And I snatched away the pearl,

and turned to go back to my
father’s house.

And their filthy and unclean
dress I stripped off,

and left it in their country;

and I took my way straight to
come

to the light of our home in the East.

And my letter, my awakener,

I found before me on the road;

and as with its voice it had
awakened me,

(so) too with its light it was leading me.

It, that dwelt in the palace,

gave light before me with its form,

and with its voice and its
guidance

it also encouraged me to speed,

and with its love it drew me on.

I went forth (and) passed by
Sarbug;

I left Babel on my left hand;

and I came to the great Maisan,

to the haven of merchants,

which sitteth on the shore of
the sea.

And my bright robe, which I had
stripped off,

and the toga that was wrapped with it,

from Rantha and Reken(?)

my parents had sent thither

by the hand of their treasures,

who in their truth could be trusted therewith.

And because I remembered not its
fashion,–

for in my childhood I had left it in my father’s house,–

on a sudden, when I received it,

the garment seemed to me to become like a mirror of myself.

I saw it all in all,

and I to received all in it,

for we were two in distinction

and yet gain one in one likeness.

And the treasurers too,

who brought it to me, I saw in like manner

to be two (and yet) one
likeness,

for one sign of the king was written on them (both),

of the hands of him who restored
to me through them

my trust and my wealth,

my decorated robe, which

was adorned with glorious colors,

with gold and beryls

and rubies and agates

and sardonyxes, varied in color.

And it was skillfully worked in its home on high,

and with diamond clasps

were all its seams fastened;

and the image of the king of
kings

was embroidered and depicted in full all over it,

and like the stone of the
sapphire too

its hues were varied.

And I saw also that all over it

the instincts of knowledge were working,

and I saw too that it was
preparing to speak.

I heard the sound of its tones,

which it uttered with its….., (saying):

“I am the active in deeds,

whom they reared for him before my father;

and I perceived myself,

that my stature grew according to his labors.”

And in its kingly movements

it poured itself entirely over me,

and on the hand of its givers

it hastened that I might take it.

And love urged me too run

to meet it and receive it;

and I stretched forth and took
it.

With the beauty of its colors I adorned myself,

and I wrapped myself wholly in
my toga

of brilliant hues.

I clothed myself with it, and
went up to the gate

of salutation and prostration;

I bowed my head and worshipped
the majesty

of my father who sent me,–

for I had done his commandments,

and he too had done what he promised,–

and the gate of his….,

I mingled with his princes,

for he rejoiced in me and
received me,

and I was with him in his kingdom,

and with the voice of….

all his servants praised him.

And he promised that to the gate
too

of the king of kings with him I should go,

and with my offering and my
pearl

with him should present myself to our king.

The Hymn of Judas Thomas the
Apostles,

which he spake in prison, is ended.

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