Sri Lanka Holidays: Total Holiday Experience
Sri Lanka Holidays takes you to the ancient glory
of the ancient nation of Sinhalese of Ancient Sri Lanka. The ancient
island of Sri Lanka makes your touring holidays a total holiday
experience (THE). During your Sri Lanka Tours you will have the
opportunity to visit no less than 6 World Heritage Cultural sites within
65,525 square kilometers (25,299 Sq. miles).
The glory of the Sinhalese of Ancient Lanka
Sinhalese are an endangered nation.
When the Guide of the World, having accomplished the salvation of
the whole world and having reached the utmost stage of blissful rest,
was lying on the bed of his nibbana; in the midst of the great assembly
of gods, he, the great sage, the greatest of those who have speech,
spoke to Sakka’ who stood there near him: “Vijaya, son of king Sihabahu,
is come to Lanka from the country of Lala, together with seven hundred
followers. In Lanka, O lord of gods, will my religion be established,
therefore carefully protect him with his followers and Lanka. When the
lord of gods heard the words of the Buddha he from respect handed over
the guardianship of Lanka to the god who is in colour like the lotus.
History: 2550 years of unbroken recorded history beginning from
Ancient kingdoms: Anuradhapura
(437 BC-845 AD),
(846 AD-1302 AD) (entire cities are UNESCO World Heritage Sites)
Ancient citadels: The Lion Rock citadel (Sigiriya)
(479-496 AD) (UNESCO
World Heritage Site)
Medieval Kingdoms: Kandy the Royal City
(1469-1815 AD) (UNESCO World
Dravidians from South India (Intermittent invasions 161 BC-1236 AD), Portuguese (1505- 1655), Dutch (1656-1795), British
the British (1815-1948)
Cultural triangle: Mihintale,
Golden Dambulla Rock Temple (WHS),
Kandy the Royal City (WHS). Since five centuries prior to the birth of
Christ, Lanka, Taprobane as Ptolemy called it, has been a throbbing isle
of vitality and a well-ordered civilization of advanced network of
irrigation engineering, rainwater management, hydraulic achievements &
river basin management which made it the Granary of the Orient with
trade relationship with the Roman Empire.
Cities, castles, palaces, fortresses, tens of thousands of rain water
reservoirs, parks, temples, monasteries, monuments of art bear testimony
to the character, imagination, culture, philosophy, faith & nature of
the people of the Resplendent Isle. The vestiges of this ancient
civilization, which are abundantly extant today, substantiate the
ancient history recorded in the ancient chronicle of Lanka,
The University of Cambridge, England has 274 volumes of ‘Epigraphica
Zeylanica’ with over 3000 inscriptions from Ceylon (that is more
inscriptions than the whole of mainland China has, even though Sri Lanka
is only 1/2 the size of the state of New York), including one dating
back to 6th century BC. Over 2000 of these have been deciphered,
indicating the consistent development of the Sinhalese language.
“Neither in the lands of their (i.e. of the Indo-Aryan settlers)
origin nor in South India did there develop an irrigation system of the
magnitude or the complexity of that which the Sinhalese afterwards
constructed in Ceylon; nothing comparable & contemporaneous (i.e.1st
century A. D. – 12th centaury A. D.) with the ancient dam, canal & tank
system of Ceylon, mingling the water of rivers flowing in different
directions is known in continental India“
(A Short Account of the History of Irrigation Works, C. W. Nicholas,
JRASCB 1960, 43-69)
“In no other part of the world are there to be found within the same
space, the remains of so many works of irrigation, which are, at the
same time, of such great antiquity, & of such vast magnitude as Ceylon.
Probably no other country can exhibit works so numerous, & at the same
time so ancient & extensive, within the same limited area, as this
Colonial Governor of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Sir Henry Ward (1885-1860)
“The constructive & artistic genius of the Sinhalese race proceeded in
the following century (i.e.2nd century B. C.) to develop the design to
an extent not found elsewhere. The most important examples erected in
Ceylon are comparable with the greatest pyramids of Egypt. The two
largest dagobas at Anuradhapura surpass in contents, three exceeded in
height all but the two enormous pyramids Khufru & Khafra at Gizeh”
(Ancient Ceylon, H. Parker, 262)
“One of the greatest contributions of the Sinhalese people to the
cultural development of South & South East Asia & to world literature is
the creation of a historic literature. It is well-known that on the
Indian sub continent before the invasion of the Islamic conquerors
virtually no historic literature had developed… Sri Lanka tells a
different story. In the Dipavamsa & Mahavamsa & in various other
Sinhalese texts, we are given an account of the political & cultural
history of the island from earliest times until the present time“
“The Sinhalese voluntarily surrendered their island to the
British Sovereign with full reservation of their rights & liberties.
They may thus claim to be one of the few ancient races of the world who
have not been conquered.“
(Sketches of Ceylon History by Sri Lankan-then called Ceylonese-Tamil
scholar Ponnambalam Arunchalam, 1906)
“The Sinhalese people are not, in my opinion, happier or better than
they were in the eighteenth century. Talk of progress, & the reality,
are not the same. Civilization is supposed to advance by the creation of
new desires, to gratify which the individual must endeavour to improve
his position. But in reality it is not quantity, but quality of wants
that may be taken as evidence of progress in the Art of Living. No one
acquainted with modern Sinhalese taste will pretend that it gives
evidence of any improvement in the quality of wants. Indeed, it is
sufficiently obvious that quantity, variety, & novelty are not really
compatible with quality.“
Mediaeval Sinhalese Art: Sri Lankan – then called Ceylonese – Tamil scholar Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy (1908) comparing the period prior to British
rule with the period of British rule.
Buddhist Bhikkus (monks)
“Go and talk to the yellow robed and tonsured recluse – not of course
through an interpreter, or out of a book of phrases: you must know not
only his language but something of Buddhist ideas; and you must speak to
him as man to man, not as the wise to the barbarian. You will certainly
be courteous; for whatever else a Buddhist Bhikkhu may be, he will be
sure to give proof of courtesy and a dignified demeanour. And it will be
strange if you do not find a new world of thought and of feeling opening
out before you.“
Rhys Davids, Professor of Pali in the University of London at Manchester
Creation of an Island
Mount Meru or Mount Sumeru is a sacred mountain in Hindu mythology in
considered to be the center of the universe. It is believed to be the
abode of Brahma and other deities. The mountain is said to be 80,000
leagues (450,000 km) high and located in Jambudvipa, one of the
continents on earth in Hindu mythology. Many Hindu temples & Angkor Wat,
the principal temple of Angkor in Cambodia, have been built as symbolic
representations of the Mountain. Legends say that Mount Meru and the
wind god Vayu were bosom friends. However, the sage Narada approached
Vayu and incited him to humble the mountain. Vayu blew with full force
for one full year, but Meru was shielded by Garuda with his wings.
However, after a year Garuda took respite for some time. Taking
advantage of this opportunity, Vayu unleashed an assault with all his
might. Thus the apex of the mountain was broken and it fell into the sea
and created the island of Lanka.
The capital of Lanka too was then called Lanka. It is said to have been
built of gold by Viswakarma, the architect of the gods for the residence
of Kuvera, from whom it was taken by king Ravana.
Naming an Island
The island was renamed Sri Lanka, meaning “resplendent land” in
In Hindu epic Ramayana the island was known as Lanka.
Sri Lanka was known in many names:
Ratnadivpa (i.e. the island of precious stones),
Heladiva (island of Hela=island of Sinhalese)
Tambapanni (Copper-coloured beach)
Serendib (from the Sanskrit Sinhaladvipa, i.e. the island of the
Si-lan by Chinese, Seylan by the Arabs
Celao during Portuguese era, Zeilan in the Dutch era
Ceylon during the colonization by the British.
Edward Barbosa, a Portuguese captain who visited the island in 1515,
tried to persuade his countrymen to adopt Tennaserim, which in an
ancient Indian language meant “Land of Delights”, but they had already
settled on Celao. To Marco Polo it was “a land like no other”.
Cosmas Indicopleustes, the Byzantine author of “Christian Topography”
twisted the Arabic into Sielediba, but the 18 th century English
novelist Horace Walpole stuck to the original for his fairy tale, “The
Three Princes of Serendib”, & used it to coin “serendipity”, meaning
discovery by happy accident.
With us, Riolta Lanka Holidays, you too will have your own load &
log of serendipitous discoveries over & above the scheduled discoveries.
The Sinhalese are the indigenous people in Sri Lanka, and have lived in
the island for over 2550 years. ‘Sinhala’ means ‘of lion blood’, because
the prince who first settled in the island (with 500 followers in 6th
century BC) was believed to have had a lion for a grandfather. The
Sinhalese are of Indo-Aryan descent, and speak ‘Sinhala’, the oldest of
the living Indo-Aryan languages. The Sinhalese have the oldest,
continuously recorded history in the world-the story of the Sinhalese is
traced back to 2550 years.
The ingenuity of the Sinhala irrigation engineers is best exemplified by
the invention of the “bisokotuwa” which literary mean “queens enclosure”
signifying “out of bounds”. The Bisokotuwa is the equivalent of the
valve-pit (sluice gate), which functions in the regulation of the
outward flow of water & is therefore essentially an invention made by
the Sinhala irrigation engineers more than 2200 years ago, 1000 years
before the rest of the world, and are considered to have built the most
sophisticated irrigation systems in the world according to British
excavation engineers. It has remained essentially unchanged since then.
“it was this bisokotuwa invention alone which permitted the Sinhalese to
proceed boldly with the construction of reservoirs that still rank among
the finest work of its kind in the world” (Parker, 1981) Minneriya tank,
was the first great rainwater reservoir ever constructed in the world,
if the great lakes of Egypt, which are immense natural hollows into
which streams were turned, are not considered. This was built by King
Mahasena (276-303 AD)
The first recorded hospital in the world
The history of medical care began early, for in the fourth century BC
King Pandukadhaya (437-366 BC), in the course of sanitizing the town
constructed an Ayurvedic hospital.
At Mihintale you will witness the
Ayurveda Medicine trough, a ruin of a
hospital built in the ninth century AD.
In the fourth century AD King Upastissa the second provided quarters &
homes for the crippled & the blind.
King Buddhadasa (337-365 AD) himself a physician of great repute,
appointed a physician to be in charge of every ten villages. For the
maintenance of these physicians, one tenth of the income of the fields
was set apart. He also set up refuges for the sick in every village.
Physicians were also appointed to look after the animals.
King Kassapa the fifth (914-923 AD) founded a hospital close to the
southern gate of Anuradhapura.
General Sena in the tenth century is believed to have built a hospital
close to the ceremonial street (Managala Veediaya).
The oldest recorded tree in the world: Sri Maha Bodhi (Sacred Bo-Tree)
A sapling of the sacred Bo tree (Peepal) (Ficus religiosa) in the
shelter of which Prince Siddhartha Gauthama attained supreme
enlightenment & became Buddha (6th century BC) was brought to Sri Lanka
by Buddhist nun Sanagamiita, as a gift from her father Mauryan Buddhist
Indian Emperor Asoka in the 3rd century BC. Today, the huge specimen of
this Ficus religiosa has no rival to the claim of being the oldest
historical tree (i.e. having the longest recorded written history) in
the world. It has been protected by an uninterrupted series of Buddhist
monks since it was planted.
The world’s first museum
The world’s first museum was built in Sri Lanka 2200 years ago. It
housed the parts of the ship that brought the Bodhi sapling to Sri Lanka
from India in 3rd century BC.
Sri Maha Bodhi (Sacred Bo-Tree).
The world’s first recorded (247 BC) wildlife and nature reserve
first recorded (247 BC) wildlife and nature reserve, established by
King Devanam Piya Tissa, a convert to conservationism preceded only by
biblical Noah in the annals of human race: deeply influenced as he was
by the inspirational message of the Buddha imparted to him by Arahat
Mahinda. Further evidence of this deep-rooted concern for wildlife and
the commitment to conservation is found in an inscription engraved on a
stone slab at Anuradhapura’s majestic millennia-old
The inscription attributed to the 12th Century King Nissankamalla of
Polononnaruwa, forbid the capture, killing or commercial trafficking of
any animals, birds and fish within a radius of 7gau (4 miles) from the
city. References to royal protection and preservation of wildlife are
extant throughout the Mahavamsa and this traditional care and concern
for creatures of the wild continues to this day.
Most possibly the oldest steel plant in the world
The earliest evidence of steel making in the ancient world, dating back
to 300 BC, has been found in the Samanalwewa reservoir area. In
comparison, England’s first steel making occurred in 1491. The early
furnaces were ingeniously powered by natural draught-the monsoon
winds-rather than the forced draught (bellow-operated) method employed
elsewhere. Recent excavations found the ruins of a steel plant (built
circa 300 BC) manned solely by wind power. Sri Lanka did indeed export
high quality steel to Persia to make the famed Persian swords.
Ancient Sinhalese ships
At one time, the Sinhalese ships were the biggest at Shanghai harbor
(Chinese records), and history records a time when the representative of
the Sinhalese sat on the right hand side seat of Claudius Caesar.
Elephants of Ancient Lanka
The excellence of elephants of Sri Lanka was well known to the Greeks as
far as back on 3rd century BC, in the time of Alexander the Great.
Onescritus, an admiral of the fleet of Alexander the great stated
elephants of Lanka “are bigger, more fierce & furious for war than those
of India” Greek writers Megasthenes (300 BC) & Aelian (44AD) corroborate
this. Sixth century writer Cosmos Indicopleustes says that the elephants
from Sri Lanka were highly priced in India for its excellence in war.
The Ancient Maritime Sea route (250 BC-250 AD)
In Topographia Christiana of the 6th century AD, Sri Lanka is referred
to as an important sea trade center on the Maritime Silk Route. Sri
Lanka is also mentioned in The Periplus Maris Erythraei, a guide to
trade on the Red Sea & India, written by an author in Alexandria,
supposed around 40 AD. The Ancient Maritime Sea Route (250 BC-250 AD)
extended from Alexandria to China: Alexandria – Nabataean Kingdom – The Red
Sea – Himyante Kingdom (Yemen) – The Arabian Sea – Satavahanos Kingdom
(India) – Ruhuna Kingdom (Sri Lanka) – Malacca – Don Song Kingdom
(Cambodia) – China.
One & only monument of the world built in honor of a fallen enemy
Sri Lanka is the only country in the world known to have a monument
built in honor of a fallen enemy (2nd century BC). Tamil invader Elara
was killed in the epic war by the Sinhalese prince from Ruhuna who rose
to become the hero of the nation. The victorious King Dutugamunu of
Lanka decreed that anyone passing the monument pay homage to the dead
king, who even though an invader. A Sinhalese aristocrat did so at the
cost of his life as recent as 1815, while fleeing from the British who
were at his heels. The ancient Sinhalese believed neither in being ruled
by foreign powers nor the contrary. Whenever there were invaders, they
were successfully overthrown, but once the kingdom was won back, these
very same invaders were ‘allowed to live as they pleased‘ (ancient
inscriptions). The kings even built religious monuments for these very
same invaders, some of which exist to this day. The ancient concept of
tolerance of the Sinhalese has been inspired by the gentle sway of
Your tour & your holidays with us
This is a Tour De Resplendent Isle. Taprobane as the Greeks called, The
Pali form was Tambapanni.
High Value Asian Holidays with the concept of “High Definition”.
Stillmore, our tour packages offer highly personalized services to cater
to each & every need of our guest. The Pearl of the Orient. Ultimate
Asian Tour Packages designed for relaxing, reinvigorating, rejuvenating,
entertaining, enlightening & enriching holidays in an Island just 30km
of shallow sea (Palk Straits) across India. In India it was called Lanka
(meaning beautiful). Enlightening & Educative Holidays in terms of Human
Condition, History, Buddhism, Auyrvedic Medicine, Ancient Art &
Sculpture. Awe-inspiring ancient monuments. Ancient yet sophisticated
vast Irrigation network consisting of well over 10,000 massive Rainwater
Reservoirs (fervet opus = the work seethes) which to date irrigate the
island making it self sufficient in Rice. The Island was called the
Granary of the Orient during the reign of King Parakramabahu the great
(1153-1186) who proclaimed that “not a single drop of rainwater should
flow into the sea without serving the purpose of man“. ecce signum!
(Behold the proof!)
Enriching & Informative Tours with respect of Ancient Culture, Buddhist
Architecture, Buddhist Art, Hindu Influence, Moorish Influence, Colonial
Heritage, Biodiversity, Ecology, and Geography. Tour Lanka, which
withstood & fought out thousands of years of invasions from powerful
Dravidian kingdoms of South India. Tour Serandib, a treasure trove of a
Spice Island, the
Island of Gems, which attracted the Moorish traders,
then battled out by the Portuguese & Dutch with Sinhalese for 300 years
& colonized by the British, for 200 years. Serendib in Arabic, Ceilao in
Portuguese, Ceylon in English. All stem from the Pali word Sinhala or
Ancient Inscriptions of Sri Lanka
The earliest archaeological remains connected with the Sinhalese, which
are still preserved without alteration in later times, are many hundreds
of caves with inscriptions engraved on their brows, found in various
parts of the island. These caves are found among the numerous boulders
which litter the sides of hills in certain places like
& at other sites.
The artificial improvements effected to these caves consist mainly of a
drip line cut along the brow, so as to prevent rain water flowing into
them. Some of these caves were provided with walls as well as the face
of the rock inside, were covered with a coating of lime plaster &
painted in some instances. In most of the caves, an inscription has been
incised below the drip line.
The script of these records is the same as that of the most ancient
historical inscriptions in India. The edicts of Emperor Asoka are in the
same script. Closer examinations of the script of these records reveal
that the forms of the individual letters were imperceptibly undergoing
change during the period in which they were being written. A comparison
of the letters in these records from Sri Lanka with the forms in Asoka
inscriptions & others in India, to which definite dates can be given,
enables us to conclude that these cave inscriptions have been made in
dates ranging from approximately the last quarter of the century B.C. to
about the end of the first century A.C.
Like the script, the language of these documents is akin to that of the
earliest records found in India. These various dialects belong to a
family of languages-namely the Indo-Aryan of which the most highly
cultivated is the Sanskrit, & to which belong the languages spoken today
in North India as well as by the Sinhalese. A study of the language of
the records in the caves in Sri Lanka enables one to conclude that it
has, by gradual changes following natural phonological laws rise to the Sinhala that is spoken today. The Aryan languages are spoken today in
the North of India. The Languages of South India is included in a
different family, the Dravidian. These inscriptions thus collaborate to
the literary tradition according to which the Sinhalese migrated to this
island from Lala, a region in North India. Considering that there is,
between Sri Lanka & the regions in which the Aryan languages are spoken
in India, an extensive area in which the language spoken by the people
are Non-Aryan, the original Sinhalese, as their traditions testify have
arrived in this island by sea-routes.
The oldest Sinhalese inscriptions are found in the North as well as in
the South of the island, in its western regions as well as in the East.
They are also found at sites in the hill country, though the majority of
sites containing early Sinhalese inscriptions are found on the plains.
These inscriptions bring forth testimony to the fact that the Sinhalese
have occupied practically the whole of island.
The inscriptions dated in the reign of the kings of the Lambakanna
dynasty (65 AD-432 AD) are numerous. They are sometimes of considerable
length, & are generally in agreement with the chronicles. There are
inscriptions which furnish us with genealogical information not given in
the Chronicles, & indicate the dynasty’s continuity where the Chronicles
would lead us to conclude that there was a break. These records register
the donations made to the religious institutions by kings & nobles, but
do not refer to political events directly. The records however, furnish
us with valuable data concerning the land tenure, revenue system & the
administrative, economic, social & religious conditions of the time.
They also enable us to understand the gradual evolution of the Sinhalese
Historical chronicles of Sri Lanka
Uniqueness of Mahawamsa
The Mahawamsa is one of the most remarkable histories in existence,
unrivalled-with perhaps the sole exception of the
the Chinese emperors.
But then again, while Mahawamsa is a continuous narration of unbroken
civilization & history of 2550 years, Shu King is simply a collection of
historical memoirs over a time span of 1700 years, but on no connected
method, & with frequent & great gaps between them.
Accuracy of Mahawamsa
The accuracy of the Mahawamsa as historical record of ancient Sri Lanka
is generally accepted by means of other numerous local & Indian edicts
(for eg., King rock edict of Indian Emperor Asoka & records of Roman
historian Pliny), inscriptions, historical works, literary works as well
as by way of ruins, renovated historical & Buddhist monuments, ancient
yet sophisticated irrigation networks, which extend the lifeline to
date, consisting of intact & renovated massive rainwater reservoirs &
Humanity of Mahawamsa
Kings who rescued the Sinhalese race, the island & Buddhism from
marauding Dravidian armies (of powerful South Indian kingdoms) hell bent
on plunder & pillage, murder & mayhem, sack & ruin with sword & fire
were given due credit. Kings who performed deeds of piety, who made the
country self sufficient in rice by way of irrigation engineering,
promoted Ayurveda medicine & medical practice, build Buddhist temples,
stupas & reigned with efforts to follow Dasaraja Dharma (tenfold
righteous path of a king, according to Buddhism) were showered with
praise. Even prior to the advent of Buddhism, Lanka had much more than
its share of benevolent rulers.
Mahawamsa chronicles represent King Bhatikabhaya, the Sinhalese king who
presumably was responsible for sending the embassy to Rome during
Emporer Caludius’ reign, as a benevolent ruler. His conduct was narrated
by Pliny to stand in opposition to that of the Roman principate. The
idea of Taprobane (Sri Lanka) as a utopia, which was to become
commonplace among Roman writers, occurs first in Artemidorus of Ephesus
(fl 104-101 B.C) (as cited Pliny N. H. V11 2.30)
In Buddha’s discourse of duties of ideal ruler, it was declared: the
Righteous king will give protection, shelter & ward both to the
different classes of human beings, & also to birds & beasts.
Compilation of Mahawamsa
compiled in Pali, the language of Theravada Buddhism
From the advent of Vijaya in 543 BC to Lanka’s greatest betrayal
of the nation in 1815; by the hill country (Kandyan) chieftains to the
British, who were ruling the lower country plains.
4th century AD
Dipavamsa (Island Genealogy or Dynasty). Believed to be written by two
Buddhist nuns Sivala & Maharuha from India.
6th century AD
Mahawamsa (Great Genealogy)
Classic adaptation of earlier Dipavamsa by Buddhist monk
(an uncle of King Datusena (461-478 A.D.), who lived in the
Dighasanda Senapathi Privena, which belonged to the Maha-vihara
Fraternity in Anuradhapura. His works ends with Ch. 37:50
The rest of the Mahawamsa is known as Culavamsa, especially after Prof.
Wilhelm Geiger, who is said to have made the division.
12h century AD
Culavamsa (Lesser Genealogy)
Main body of Mahawamsa written by Buddhist monk Ven. Dhamma-kirti Maha
thera who lived during Dambadeniya period (1220-1293)
17th century AD
Additions by Ven. Tibbotuwawe Sri Siddhartha Buddha-rakshita Maha Thera
who, lived during the reign of King Kirti Sri Rajasinha (1747-1778) &
Ven. Panditha Yagirala Sri Pragnanada, the Chief Sangha nayaka of
Gonagala Sudharma-kara Pirivena.
18th century AD
Culavamsa expanded by Buddhist monk Tibbaootuwawe Sumangala Thera
Year 1815: Chapter 101 was added as a supplement by Buddhist monk
Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera
Year 1877 Chapter 101 was expanded by
D. A. de Silva Batuwantudawa Esq
Rosetta Stone of Sri Lanka & translation of Mahawamsa
Year 1826: Ceylon’s
was found; ola parchment at
A provincial agent of British colonial rulers named George Turnour was
burrowing in a temple on top of a 200-meter rock called Mulgirigala on
the south coast came across a stack of palm-leaf parchment that provided
the clues that enabled him to decipher the archaic pali script of
ancient Sinhalese chronicle Mahawamsa.
In an Indian perspective, it is viewed as an invaluable text for
historians, since it often relates to contemporary royal dynasties in
the Indian subcontinent.
Mahavamsa: official translation by Dr. Wilhem Geiger in 1912
Chulawamsa: official translation by Dr. Wilhem Geiger in 1930
The first English translation of Mahawamsa from Dr. Geiger’s native
German was done by Mrs. Mabel Haynes Bode. Overall, the chronicle has
over 200,000 words of text in about 960 pages. Dr.Geiger called the
first part (Chapters 1-37) the Mahavamsa, the second part (Chapters
38-79) the Culavamsa 1 & the third & final part (Chapters 80-101) the
Other ancient chronicles of Sri Lanka
Attana-galu Vihara Vamsa
The Maha Bodhivamsa
- Codrington, H. W.: A Short History of Ceylon, New Delhi 1994 (Reprint.
- De Silva, Chandra Richard: Sri Lanka – A History, New Delhi 1987 (2nd,
- De Silva, K. M.: A History of Sri Lanka. New Delhi, Penguin, xvii, p.
- Johnson, B. L. C., and M. Le M. Scrivenor.: Sri Lanka Land, People and
- Knox, Robert: An Historical Relation of the Island of Ceylon in the
- Mendis, G.C.: Ceylon Today and Yesterday, Colombo 1957 (3rd edition
- Smith, Vincent A.: The Oxford History of India, Oxford 1958 (4th
- Williams, Harry: Ceylon Pearl of the East, Robert Hale Limited,
London, Great Britain, 1950.
Would that do?
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appeals to you, would you drop a line to us?
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on photo to enlarge
Golden Dambulla Rock Temple
The Lion Rock citadel
Kandy the Royal City
Yapahuwa Rock Fortress
Ancient Sinhalese Irrigation