Different clones of each grape varietal are selected and planted for the different characteristics they offer when combined with different soil types and the location planted on the estate. From 1984 to 1986, the winery had only one clone of Pinot Noir and one clone of Chardonnay planted. To produce the complex sparkling and still wines José envisioned, the vineyards required greater variety. If this were a European vineyard, the knowledge required would have been passed down through generations. Carneros was a new American Viticultural Area (AVA), and our team needed to manifest generations of knowledge in a single lifetime. Experimentation, rather than experience, would guide us.